The meqaat boundaries were defined by the Prophet (Peace Be Upon Him), and anybody (with the intention of performing Umrah or Hajj) who passes through them without Ihraam is liable for an expiation (sacrifice).
The Prophet (Peace Be Upon Him) said:
"They (i.e. the mawaqit) are for those who come from them and those coming from beyond them who intend Hajj or Umrah." (Bukhari & Muslim)
Jeddah is not a meqaat. Many pilgrims adopt their Ihraam at Jeddah airport. This is a violation of the meqaat rules. The pilgrims should return to their respective meqaat or the nearest one, or perform an animal sacrifice as expiation.
Only the people who reside in Jeddah can adopt their Ihraams from their homes in Jeddah.
Pilgrims intending to proceed to Madinah upon arrival in Jeddah, should adopt Ihraam at Dhul-Hulaifa in Madinah, before going to Makkah.
Narrated Ibn Abbas (may Allah be pleased with him) that the Prophet (Peace Be Upon Him) fixed Dhul-Hulaifa as the meqaat for the people of Al-Madinah, Al-Juhfa for the people of Sham, Qarn-ul-Manazil for the people of Najd, and Yalamlam for the people of Yemen; and these mawaqit are for those living at those very places, and besides them for all those who come through them with the intention of performing Hajj and Umrah; and whoever is living within these mawaqit should assume Ihraam from where they start and the people of Makkah can assume Ihraam (for Hajj only) from Makkah. (Bukhari)
Some airlines such as Saudi Arabian Airlines, Malaysian Airlines, Emirates Airlines, Kuwait Air and Pakistan International Airlines make an announcement in the aircraft prior to it reaching the respective meqaat boundary. Some display a message on the screen about 10 to 20 minutes before the meqaat.
Meqaat names and locations
1. Dhul-Hulaifa, is also now known as Abyar Ali or Abaar Ali (the wells of Ali). It is situated about 10 kilometres (6 miles) outside Madinah. It is for the pilgrims of Madinah and those coming from the North.
2. Dhat-Irq is for the pilgrims coming from the direction of Iraq. It is about 67 kilometres (42 miles) from Makkah.
3. Qarn al-Manazil, now known as as-Sayl. This is for the pilgrims coming from the Najd and the East. It is situated near the city of Taif.
4. Yalamlam, also known as as-Sadiah. This is for the pilgrims coming from Yemen and its direction (South). It is about 48 kilometres (30 miles) from Makkah.
5. Al-Juhfa is today an abandoned village north west of Makkah near the town of Rabigh. Pilgrims coming from Syria and its direction adopt their Ihraam from Rabigh.
As there are many pilgrims and the aircraft facilities are limited, it is advisable to prepare oneself (ghusl, trim nails, etc.) and to put on one’s Ihraam clothes, prior to boarding the aircraft, and only utter the niyah at the meqaat boundary.
Below is a very general diagram to give you an idea of the boundaries.
Some examples (of pilgrims arriving by air direct to Jeddah):
¨ People coming from the United Kingdom will adopt Ihraam at or over Rabigh (1)
¨ People coming from Australia, Malaysia, Singapore, etc. will adopt Ihraam at As-Sayl (3) (assuming that the flight is direct and not via Riyadh).
¨ People coming from America and Canada will adopt Ihraam at Rabigh (5)
¨ People coming from South-Africa and Nigeria will adopt Ihraam at As-Sadiah (4)
¨ People from Egypt will adopt Ihraam at Rabigh (5)
¨ People coming from Pakistan will adopt Ihraam at As-Sayl (3)